In past decades, there has been significant progress in human development levels, but millions of people have not benefited from this progress. Who has been left behind and why? It identifies recognizes that in every society certain groups are far more likely to suffer disadvantages than others and identifies deep-rooted, and often unmeasured, barriers to development.
It looks to what societies should do to advance human development for everyone. It sets forward policy recommendations at the national level and also looks at ways in which the global development landscape could be made more effective in the fight to leave no one behind.
The scale and types of radiological and nuclear emergencies may range from an isolated occupational or medical over-exposure of a person, to a major catastrophe with global dimensions. Regardless the scale or a cause of an accident, there is a common denominator: human health.
Air pollution is contamination of the indoor or outdoor environment by any chemical, physical or biological agent that modifies the natural characteristics of the atmosphere. Household combustion devices, motor vehicles, industrial facilities and forest fires are common sources of air pollution. Pollutants of major public health concern include particulate matter, carbon monoxide, ozone, nitrogen dioxide and sulphur dioxide. Outdoor and indoor air pollution cause respiratory and other diseases, which can be fatal.
The main functions are as under
- Blindness control
- Cancer control
- Cardio vascular disease control
- Child health
- Dental education
- Emergency medical relief.
- Family planning
- Food and drugs
- Health insurance
- Medical education
- Health research.
- Maternal health
- Medical services.
- Health care of the elderly citizens.
- Prevention and control of deafness and vector borne diseases.
- Nursing and training.
- Public health.
- Medical and health statistics
- Tobacco control.
The other work of this branch includes
- Promotion and co-ordination of basic, applied and clinical research including clinical trials and operational research in areas related to medical, health, biomedical and medical profession and education through development of infrastructure, manpower and skills in cutting edge areas and management of related information.
- Promote and provide guidance on research governance issues, including ethical issues in medical and health research.
- Coordination and promotion of public-private partnership in medical, bio-medical and health research related areas.
- Advance training in research areas concerning medicine and health including grant of fellowships.
- International cooperation in medical and health research including work related to international conferences in related areas.
- Technical support for dealing with epidemics and natural calamities.
- To draw of schemes for promotion, cultivation and regeneration of medical plants used in alternate systems.
- To upgrade the educational standards in the alternate systems of medicines and homoeopathy colleges.
Facts and Figures –
- HIV/AIDS remains one of the world's most significant public health challenges, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. As a result of recent advances in access to antiretroviral therapy (ART), HIV-positive people now live longer and healthier lives. In addition, it has been confirmed that ART prevents onward transmission of HIV.
- An estimated 18.2 million [16.1 million–19 million] people were receiving HIV treatment in mid-2016. However, globally, only 46% [43–50%] of the 36.7 million people living with HIV in 2015 were receiving ART.
- Progress has also been made in preventing and eliminating mother-to-child transmission and keeping mothers alive. In 2015, almost 8 out of 10 pregnant women living with HIV, or 1.1 million women, received antiretroviral (ARVs).
- Around 3 billion people cook and heat their homes using open fires and simple stoves burning biomass (wood, animal dung and crop waste) and coal.
- Over 4 million people die prematurely from illness attributable to the household air pollution from cooking with solid fuels.
- More than 50% of premature deaths due to pneumonia among children fewer than 5 are caused by the particulate matter (soot) inhaled from household air pollution.
- 3.8 million Premature deaths annually from no communicable diseases including stroke, ischemic heart disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and lung cancer are attributed to exposure to household air pollution.
- 4.3 million People a year die prematurely from illness attributable to the household air pollution caused by the inefficient use of solid fuels (2012 data) for cooking. Among these deaths:
- 12% are due to pneumonia
- 34% from stroke2
- 6% from ischemic heart disease
- 22% from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD),
- 6% from lung cancer.
- Cancer is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide, with approximately 14 million new cases in 2012
- The number of new cases is expected to rise by about 70% over the next 2 decades.
- Cancer is the second leading cause of death globally, and was responsible for 8.8 million deaths in 2015. Globally, nearly 1 in 6 deaths is due to cancer.
- Approximately 70% of deaths from cancer occur in low- and middle-income countries.
- Around one third of deaths from cancer are due to the 5 leading behavioural and dietary risks: high body mass index, low fruit and vegetable intake, lack of physical activity, tobacco use, and alcohol use.
- Tobacco use is the most important risk factor for cancer and is responsible for approximately 22% of cancer deaths
- Cancer causing infections, such as hepatitis and human papilloma virus (HPV), are responsible for up to 25% of cancer cases in low- and middle-income countries
- Late-stage presentation and inaccessible diagnosis and treatment are common. In 2015, only 35% of low-income countries reported having pathology services generally available in the public sector. More than 90% of high-income countries reported treatment services are available compared to less than 30% of low-income countries.
- The economic impact of cancer is significant and is increasing. The total annual economic cost of cancer in 2010 was estimated at approximately US$ 1.16 trillion
- Only 1 in 5 low- and middle-income countries have the necessary data to drive cancer policy